The paper presents new approach to study spatial and temporal variability of bioclimatic conditions. The new Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI was applied in this purpose. UTCI bases on multi-note human heat balance Fiala model and it represents heat stress in man caused by meteorological conditions. The seasonal and regional variability of bioclimate was assessed on an example of selected European cities: Kołobrzeg, Warsaw, Świeradów, Prague, Budapest, Ljubljana and Milan. Daily meteorological data (air temperature, vapour pressure, wind speed and total cloud cover) for the period 1991-2000 was used in this purpose. Annual course of UTCI values and the frequency of UTCI categories are discussed. Significant regional differences between studied cities were found. The results confirm frequent occurrence of unfavourable thermal conditions in Mediterranean region in summer months. However, heat stress was frequently observed in summer in all compared stations. Spatial variability in detail local scale was studied on the examples of selected regions of Poland (Mazovia Lowland, Warsaw). The results show that occurrence of strong heat stress depends not only on general meteorological conditions but also on land use. The greatest heat stress is observed mostly in urbanised areas especially in the central parts of cities and inside industrial districts.


bioclimatic conditions, Central Europe, Universal Thermal Climate Index, seasonal variability of UTCI, local variability of UTCI

Full Text:



Błażejczyk, K.: New climatological-and-physiological model of the human heat balance outdoor (MENEX) and its applications in bioclimatological studies in different scales. Zeszyty IGiPZ PAN 28: 27-58, 1994

Błażejczyk, K.: Influence of air circulation and local factors on climate and bioclimate of Warsaw agglomeration. Dokumentacja Geograficzna 26, 2002

Błażejczyk, K.: Mapping of UTCI in local scale (the case of Warsaw). Prace i Studia Geograficzne WGSR UW 47: 275-283, 2011

Błażejczyk, K. and Błażejczyk, A.: Influence of urbanisation level on the heat load in man in Warsaw. In: de Dear, R.J., Potter, J.C., eds. Proc. 15th Int. Congress of Biometeorology & Int. Conf. On Urban Climatology, Sydney, Australia 8-12 Nov. 1999, Macquire University, Sydney, Australia, (CD-ROM), 1999

Błażejczyk, K., Bröde, P., Fiala, D., Havenith, G., Holmér, I., Jendritzky, G., Kampmann, B., Kunert, A.: Principles of the new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) and its application to bioclimatic research in European scale. Miscelanea Geographica 14:91-102, 2010

Błażejczyk, K., Epstein, Y., Jendritzky, G., Staiger, H., Tinz, B.: Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices. International Journal of Biometeorology 56, 3: 515–535, 2012

Błażejczyk, K. and Kunert, A.: Differentiation of bioclimatic conditions of urban areas (the case of Poland). In: 6th International Conference on Urban Climate, June12-16 2006, Göteborg, Sweden, Preprints: 213-216, 2006

Błażejczyk, K. and Kunert, A.: Bioclimatic conditions of selected agglomerations in Europe and in Poland. In: Bednorz, E., Kolendowicz, L., eds., Klimat Polski na tle klimatu Europy, Zmiany i konsekwencje. Bogucki Wyd. Naukowe, Poznań: 93-106, 2010

Błażejczyk, K. and Kunert, A.: Bioclimatic principles of recreation and tourism in Poland. 2nd ed., Monografie IGiPZ PAN 13, Warszawa, 2011

Błażejczyk, K. and Matzarakis, A.: Assessment of bioclimatic differentiation of Poland based on the human heat balance. Geographia Polonica, vol. 80, No 1,: 63-82, Spring 2007

Bröde, P., Fiala, D., Błażejczyk, K., Holmér, I., Jendritzky, G., Kampmann, B., Tinz, B., Havenith, G.: Deriving the operational procedure for the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), International Journal of Biometeorology 56, 3: 481-494, 2012

Bröde, P., Krüger, E.L., Fiala, D.: UTCI validation and the practical application to the assessment of urban outdoor thermal comfort. Geographia Polonica, 86, 1: 11-20, 2013

Epstein, Y. and Moran, D.S.: Thermal comfort and heat stress indices. Industrial Health 44: 388-398, 2006

Fiala, D., Havenith, G., Bröde, P., Kampmann, B., Jendritzky, G.: UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation. International Journal of Biometeorology 56, 3: 429-441, 2012

Fiala, D., Lomas, K.J., Stohrer, M.: A computer model of human thermoregulation for a wide range of environmental conditions: The passive system. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87 (5): 1957-1972, 1999

Fiala, D., Lomas, K.J., Stohrer, M.: Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and temperature responses to a wide range of environmental conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology 45: 143-159, 2001

Fiala, D., Lomas, K.J., Stohrer, M.: First Principles Modeling of Thermal Sensation Responses in Steady-State and Transient Conditions. ASHRAE Transactions: Research Vol. 109, Part I: 179-186, 2003

Gagge, A.P., Fobelets, A.P., Berglund, P.E.: A standard predictive index of human response to the thermal environment. ASHRAE Transactions 92:709-731, 1986

Glossary of Terms for Thermal Physiology: Journal of Thermal Biology 28: 75-106. 2003

Havenith, G.: An individual model of human thermoregulation for the simulation of heat stress response. Journal of Applied Physiology 90: 1943-1954, 2001

Höppe, P.: Die Energiebilanz des Menschen. Wiss. Mitt. Meteorol. Inst. Uni München 49, 1984

Huizenga, C., Zhang, H., Arens, E.: A model of human physiology and comfort for assessing complex thermal environments. Building and Environment 36: 691-699, 2001

ISO 7933, Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Analytical determination and interpretation of heat stress using calculation of the predicted heat strain. ISO, Geneva 2004-08.

Jendritzky, G.: Bioklimatische Bewertungsgrundlage der Räume am Beispiel von mesoskaligen Bioklimakarten. In: Jendritzky G, Schirmer H, Menz G, Schmidt-Kessen Methode zur raumbezogenen Bewertung der thermischen Komponente im Bioklima des Menschen (Fortgeschriebenes Klima-Michel-Modell). Akad Raumforschung Landesplanung, Hannover, Beiträge 114: 7-69, 1990

Kunert, A.: Modeling of UTCI index in various types of landscape. In: Matzarakis, A., Mayer, H., Chmielewski, F-M., eds., Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Biometeorology, Berichte des Meteorologischen Instituts der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, 20: 302-307, 2010

Lindner-Cendrowska, K.: Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in the cities for tourism and recreational purposes (a Warsaw case study). Geographia Polonica, 86, 1: 55-66, 2013

Matzarakis, A., Rutz, F., Mayer, H.: Modeling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model. International Journal of Biometeorology 54, 2: 131-139, 2010

Milewski, P.M.: Application of UTCI to the local bioclimate of Poland’s Ziemia Kłodzka region. Geographia Polonica, vol. 86, no. 1: 47-54, 2013

Nemeth, A.: Changing thermal bioclimate in some Hungarian cities. Acta Climatologica et Chorologica Universitatis Szegediensis, 44-45: 93-101, 2011

Nowosad, M., Rodzik, B., Wereski, S., Dobek, M.: The UTCI index in Lesko and Lublin and its circulation determinants. Geographia Polonica, 86, 1: 29-36, 2013

Parsons, K.C.: Human thermal environments: the effects of hot, moderate, and cold environments on human health, comfort and performance. Taylor&Francis, London, New York, 2003

Pickup, J. and de Dear, R.: An Outdoor Thermal Comfort Index (OUT_SET*) - Part I - The Model and its Assumptions. In: de Dear, R., Kalma, J., Oke, T., Auliciems, A. (eds.): Biometeorology and Urban Climatology at the Turn of the Millenium. Selected Papers from the Conference ICB-ICUC'99 (Sydney, 8-12 Nov. 1999). WMO, Geneva, WCASP-50: 279-283, 2000

Psikuta, A., Fiala, D., Laschewski, G., Jendritzky, G., Richards, M., Błażejczyk, K., Mekjavič, I., Rintamäki, H., de Dear, R., Havenith, G.: Evaluation of the Fiala multi-node thermophysiological model for UTCI application. International Journal of Biometeorology 56, 3: 443-460, 2012

Tanabe, S.I., Kobayashi, K., Nakano, J., Ozeki, Y., Konishi, M.: Evaluation of thermal comfort using combined multi-node thermoregulation (65MN) and radiation models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Energy and Buildings 34: 637-646, 2002



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 1223-5334; eISSN: 2284-6379. Published in Romania




Large Visitor Globe